عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – – الْفِطْرُ يَوْمَ يُفْطِرُ اَلنَّاسُ, وَالْأَضْحَى يَوْمَ يُضَحِّي اَلنَّاسُ – رَوَاهُ اَلتِّرْمِذِيُّ
On the authority of Aaisha. Allah’s Messengerg said “(Eid) Al fitr, is the day in which people break the fast. And (Eida) al Adha is the day in which the people offer sacrifices” Narrated by Al Tirmizi
The Hadeeth shows that even if one single person sights the moon, he should not consider it Eid and stop fasting unless it be with the people. (He should consider as Eid the day the people consider as Eid) This opinion was narrated from Imaam Ahmed and was favored by Ibn Thaymiyya.
Imaam Shaafi’ee is of the opinion that he stops fasting secretly so as to not cause division in the Jamaa’ath.
وَعَنْ أَنَسٍ – رضي الله عنه – قَالَ: – كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – لَا يَغْدُو يَوْمَ اَلْفِطْرِ حَتَّى يَأْكُلَ تَمَرَاتٍ – أَخْرَجَهُ اَلْبُخَارِيُّ .وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ مُعَلَّقَةٍ -وَوَصَلَهَا أَحْمَدُ-: وَيَأْكُلُهُنَّ أَفْرَادًا
Narrated Anas. The Messenger of Allah g would not go out on the day of (Eid) Al Fitr, till he ate some dates. Narrated by Al Bukhaari. And in another narration with a broken chain but connected by Ahmed who narrated “and he used to eat them one by one”
This is evidence that it is highly recommended that one eats an odd number of dates on Eid al Fitr before going out to the Musallah. If one finds no dates, he may eat something else so that the sunnah of eating something before going out to the Musallah is fulfilled.
وَعَنْ أُمِّ عَطِيَّةَ قَالَتْ: – أُمِرْنَا أَنْ نُخْرِجَ اَلْعَوَاتِقَ, وَالْحُيَّضَ فِي الْعِيدَيْنِ; يَشْهَدْنَ الْخَيْرَ وَدَعْوَةَ اَلْمُسْلِمِينَ, وَيَعْتَزِلُ اَلْحُيَّضُ اَلْمُصَلَّى – مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ
Narrated Umm Atiyya: We were commanded to bring out, on Eidul Fitr and the Eidul Adha, the young women, and the menstruating women so that they witness the goodness and supplication of the Muslims. However the menstruating women would refrain from the Musallah. (The actual place of prayer) Bukhari and Muslim.
This is evidence that the women can attend the Eid prayer. And the outward text includes the elderly and the young ones. But they should not display their beauty. And they should cover themselves in the Shar’ee Jilbaab.
وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: – أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – صَلَّى يَوْمَ اَلْعِيدِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ, لَمْ يُصَلِّ قَبْلَهَا وَلَا بَعْدَهَا – أَخْرَجَهُ اَلسَّبْعَةُ
Narrated Ibn Abbas: The Prophet offered two Rak’at on the day of Eid (meaning the Eid prayer), and did not pray before or after them. Narrated Ahmed, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Nasai, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah.
This shows that there is no Nafil prayer before or after the Eid prayer. But after leaving the Musallah, the Messenger of Allah prayed two Rak’at in his home as is known from the Hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed.
وَعَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ قَالَ: – كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – لَا يُصَلِّي قَبْلَ اَلْعِيدِ شَيْئًا, فَإِذَا رَجَعَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ – رَوَاهُ اِبْنُ مَاجَهْ بِإِسْنَادٍ حَسَنٍ
Narrated Abu Sa’eed: The Messenger of Allah g never used to offer any prayer before the Eid prayer. But when he went back home, he used to pray two Rak’at. Reported by Ibn Majah with a Hasan (good) chain of narrators) (grading by Ibn Hajar)
This does not contradict the report of Ibn Abbas as it was related to prayer at the Musallah and not related to prayers after one returns home.